Ural pears: the best varieties and cultivation rules

Ural pears: the best varieties and cultivation rules

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The Ural Federal District of Russia includes the territory of the Urals and Western Siberia; the climatic conditions in these regions are far from ideal for the cultivation of many fruit plants, including pears. Nevertheless, gardeners and summer residents learned to get very good yields of various crops due to the correct selection of varieties and strict adherence to growing technology.

Characteristic and features of choice

The Ural territory is characterized by a variety of topography and microclimatic conditions. Soil in the Urals is characterized by poor drainage, especially in the northern and northeastern regions, where for the most part marsh or swampy soils prevail. The central part is significantly boggy, and podzolic as well as peaty and gley-podzolic soils prevail in the northern part, which, combined with climatic conditions, complicates the cultivation of heat-loving fruit crops.

When choosing a pear variety for cultivation in the Urals, it is necessary first of all to pay attention to specially bred varieties for cultivation in this federal district.

In the Urals, experimental stations Sverdlovskaya and Chelyabinsk were involved in the development of adapted pear varieties. Very good results were achieved by Siberian breeders of the Krasnoyarsk fruit and berry station. The description of the most promising varieties is known to many, but recently gardeners are increasingly paying attention not only to zoned varieties, but also to new selection achievements that guarantee a high, and most importantly high-quality and stable pear crop.

Varieties of pears for the Urals

The best early grades

Usually, Ural gardeners and summer residents prefer early varieties, the best of which have excellent resistance to adverse weather factors and are favorably characterized by high annual yields with minimal care.

Grade nameGrade descriptionGrade Featuresdisadvantages
"Talitsa"A fast-growing plant with a pyramidal spreading crown. Rounded fruits weighing no more than 115 g. The flesh is cream-colored, without stony. Aroma and juiciness are very pronouncedFruit formation 78-80 days after flowering. Productivity reaches 30 t / ha. Resistant to scab and freezing frostShort shelf life of the crop, the tendency of pears to fall, self-fertility
"Zarechnaya"A fast-growing plant with a round or spreading crown. Fruits are medium in size, yellow with a blush. The flesh is fine-grained, tasty and relatively dense.Lack of tendency to shed fruit at the loading stage, visual appeal and excellent taste of pearsShort crop storage periods
FireflyA plant of medium height, with an un thickened, easy-to-care crown. Fruits are roundish, medium in size, with smooth greenish-yellow skin. Cream-colored flesh is tender and juicyThe variety has good winter hardiness and a high level of resistance to the most common diseases.

With improper care, the fruits become smaller. Failure to observe the storage regime of pears provokes the formation of fruit rot
"Perm"A plant of medium growth strength, fast growing, with a good level of winter hardiness, early and fruitful. The fruits are large, light yellow, with a slight orange blush. The pulp is white, juicy and sweet, acid freeExcellent fruit taste, resistance to low temperature conditions, early crop formationPractically absent

Best late grades

In the Ural region, some later varieties also mature well. which combine excellent productivity, excellent taste, as well as resistance to disease and low temperatures. The harvest of such varieties perfectly retains its taste and presentation for a long time.

Grade nameGrade descriptionGrade Featuresdisadvantages
"Beware"The plant is low, frost-resistant. Fruits are yellow, ovoid. Creamy flesh, not too dense, tastyThe variety was obtained as a result of artificial mutagenesis. The advantages are high yield and excellent quality characteristics of the fruit.This variety needs planting pollinating plants.
"Uralochka"The plant is relatively low, responsive to proper pruning. The fruits are small, yellow, with sweet and sour fleshIt has a record high winter hardiness. Resistant to scab and return frostSmall fruit size and short crop shelf life
"Myth"The tree is vigorous, tall, winter-hardy, fruitful. Fruits are small, rough, green-yellow staining, with delicious creamy fleshFavorably characterized by winter hardiness, good taste and resistance to scab. The crop lasts up to three months.Insignificant size of the fruit, great growth power of the tree
DekabrinkaA tree of medium vigor with a rounded neat crown. The fruits are medium in size, pear-shaped, smooth and beautiful. White flesh is a little rough, but juicyWinter-hardy, not affected by scab, ticks. Characterized by moderate growth and lack of thickening of the crown. High and annual yieldsPractically absent

Growing Features

When growing pears in areas with adverse soil and climatic conditions, special importance is attached to such activities as watering and top dressing, as well as the correct formation of the crown of young plants. Equally important is the preparation of trees for the winter period, including processing, pruning, top dressing and warming.

In addition, it should be remembered that a correctly planted pear in the early years grows very actively, but with the onset of fruiting it slows down its growth. Therefore, young plants require special attention and proper care.

According to many Ural gardeners, the most delicious and adapted to the difficult growing conditions in the Urals and in the northern territories pear varieties were created by amateur gardener A. M. Lukashov. Other domestic breeders carried out very successful work on crossing the Ussuri pear with Lukashov and the best foreign varieties. Very popular are the pears of the well-known gardeners of domestic breeders L. A. Kotov and A. S. Tikhonova, the authorship of which belongs to the varieties "Sentyabrina", "Penguin", "Guidon", "Sky-high" and Tikhonovna who have proven themselves in the home gardening of the Urals.

How to prepare a garden for winter