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The propagation of varietal grapes by layering is becoming increasingly popular among summer residents who want to increase the number of bushes on their site and not spend a lot of money for this. The technique has several effective ways that not only increase the number of plants on the site, but also insure or replace old and weak bushes.
What is grape layering?
Even difficult-to-root grape varieties can be easily propagated by layering. Other techniques for them do not bring the desired result. It must be remembered that the method is good only in those areas where root diseases have not previously occurred.
Professional growers call layering twigs buried in the ground and rooted branches, which, after separation from the mother bush, can be used as independent seedlings and propagate the plant with them. Due to the direct connection of the cutter with the mother plant, the necessary nutrition is provided, the seedling develops well and actively develops its own root system.
Many adventitious roots are formed, providing a good and quick survival of a young bush.
Pros and cons of the layering method
Reproduction of grapes by layering has its own strengths and weaknesses, taking into account which the gardener decides whether to use this technique on his site. The pluses include:
- can be used to restore and propagate old bushes;
- obtaining planting material for further disembarkation;
- increasing the area of our own vineyards and making a profit from the sale of planting material;
- the use of seedlings in landscape design by creating bushes with unusual shapes;
- preservation of varietal characteristics of the mother plant;
- excellent survival rate;
- the opportunity to get a harvest in the first year after planting.
The disadvantage is that when the grape bush is propagated by the layering method, the mother plant is greatly depleted.
What are the ways to lay grapes?
Vine layering methods are classified depending on which method is used to dig in. When propagated by green layering, the twigs root perfectly, and the young plant takes root easily and quickly. For this procedure, you will need to choose the strongest plant of the desired variety, which has a good yield. It is better if it grows in a spacious place. Preparatory work is carried out in the spring, when the grape bush is pruned.
When pruning, a pair of lower shoots is selected, which will subsequently fit into the ground. It will be great, the branches are located close to the ground. In the summer, when their length reaches a couple of meters, a trench half a meter deep is dug near the grapes. The walls and bottom are made vertical. Organic fertilizers are mixed with soil and poured into the bottom of the trench.
All leaves and stepchildren are carefully cut off from the selected shoots, after which they are laid in a prepared hole, half covered with earth.
Next, you need to water the groove abundantly and fill up the earth to the top. The top of the vine is pulled out and attached to a wooden support. Throughout the summer period, the layers are periodically moistened and loosened up the soil, while simultaneously removing the emerging weeds. By the end of summer, the top of the grapes is broken off, thereby limiting the growth of the ground part and allowing the plant to throw all its strength into the formation of adventitious roots.
If the cuttings obtained in this way are planned to be stored for the winter, then it must be well insulated. By the end of September, the young grape bush can already be separated from the mother plant and stored in a closed room (for example, in the basement). This procedure can be carried out in the spring, before planting in a permanent place of growth.
There is another time-tested method for propagating grapes - air layering. Despite the fact that it was invented a long time ago, its popularity is not diminishing. Its essence boils down to the fact that a new root system is formed on the lignified shoot. To this end, in the spring, when pruning, the strongest shoot is selected, all the leaves are cut off from it. 20 cm recede from the top of the branch, an incision is made in the bark in a circle, the width of which is up to 5 mm.
This place is wrapped in wet moss, and wrapped in black cellophane on top. After a certain time, roots should form in this place. In autumn, the shoot with roots is separated from the mother plant and planted in flower pots or plastic cups, and then sent to a cool place until spring. With the onset of warmth, young grape bushes are planted in a permanent place of growth.
Propagation of grapes by layering according to the season
Reproduction of grapes in summer is carried out at a time when the length of the vine has already reached 2-2.5 meters. Usually this period falls on the end of July or the first half of August. Choose a few of the strongest branches closest to the soil, and completely tear off the leaves from them. After that, the vine is placed in a groove prepared in advance, bringing a pair of eyes to the surface.
In autumn, grapes are propagated extremely rarely, but if there is a need for this, then the procedure can be carried out in any way of rooting, layering.
A feature of autumn breeding is that it is advisable to dig up the resulting young plant before frost, plant it in a pot and send it to the basement for storage. If this is not possible, then you can leave it to winter in the garden bed, while providing good shelter. The covering material is laid with a thickness of at least 20 cm.
In the spring, for the propagation of grapes, they most often resort to hilling the head of the bush. The disadvantage is that the mother plant is depleted. Suitable for those varieties that are characterized by compact size and low bush formation. With the onset of heat, all the branches on the grapes are pruned in such a way that there is a gap of a couple of eyes.
When they sprout 25 cm, they are covered with a layer of soil and watered. During the season, make sure that the ground is constantly wet, otherwise roots will not form. With the onset of autumn, the cuttings are cut as close to the soil level as possible.
Tips for transplanting and caring for layers
Proper care of grape bushes obtained as a result of rooting cuttings will help not only increase their vitality, but also speed up the first harvest. The land must be loosened in a timely manner and very carefully, and the emerging weeds must be removed. Regular watering is of great importance, which is done no more than once every 10 days. The soil is irrigated in special grooves or directly into the holes of the plant. The soil should be loosened as the upper layers are compacted due to precipitation or irrigation.
The grapes respond gratefully to the timely introduction of fertilizing. Potash and phosphate fertilizers are of great importance to him.
It is on the presence and reserves of phosphorus that the laying and development of future fruit buds depends, as well as the level of sugar in ripe fruits. Potassium increases the protective properties of the plant and stimulates growth processes. Nitrogen also has a positive effect on development and growth, but it is important not to overdo it with this trace element. Otherwise, the grapes will begin the process of protracted growth, and they will not have time to prepare for winter. As a result, frost resistance decreases, and there is a risk of freezing of a young plant.
In order for the young vine to acquire an upright position, it is recommended to tie it up to the pegs set in advance. In the first year of life, only 3 shoots are left on the grapes. If more of them appear, then the strongest are selected, and the rest are carefully cut off.
Before the onset of cold weather, the branches are cut so that their length is up to 1 meter, and bent to the ground. A layer of soil taken from the middle of the rows is poured on top of the young grapes. This procedure is done after the first frost has passed. Snow retention should be arranged in the vineyard in winter.
General tips and subtleties from gardeners
It is possible to propagate grapes by layering in different climatic conditions. For planting, it is better to choose a well-lit, sunny place, protected from drafts. The soil on the site is selected fertile, because when new grape bushes appear, the consumption of trace elements and nutrients from it increases.
To measure the length of a young vine, they resort to using a centimeter tape, which in the common people is called a centimeter. The garter of grape branches is carried out using twine, rope or thin pieces of cloth. When transplanting young bushes, fuss and rush should be avoided, because this often leads to damage to the shoots and a weak root system. This mistake is often made not only by beginners, but also by experienced growers.