The use of rapeseed as a green manure helps to obtain a complex effect. This green fertilizer saturates the soil with organic elements and has a beneficial effect on its structure. Also, the plant successfully copes with harmful insects and diseases. Therefore, it is often used on large plantations and in personal subsidiary plots. In order for rapeseed to give the desired effect, it is important to carry out planting work correctly and follow the rules of caring for it.
Advantages and disadvantages of this plant
The benefits of rapeseed when used as green manure can hardly be overestimated.
This culture has many benefits. These include the following:
- Effective weed control. The roots of the green manure prevent unwanted vegetation from appearing. A small amount of rapeseed should be planted between the rows of cultivated plants.
- Elimination of harmful insects. This effect is achieved due to the essential oils that are present in the plant. Also, these components help to avoid the development of dangerous diseases.
- Saturation of the soil with useful substances. This effect is achieved through the roots. When planting a crop in poor soil, it is necessary to additionally feed it with minerals.
- Restoration of soil structure. This effect is achieved due to the deep penetration of oxygen.
- Soil saturation with sulfur and other important substances. This property is characteristic of the winter plant species. It helps to significantly improve the composition of the soil.
- Attracting earthworms after mowing. Thanks to this, it is possible to continue loosening the soil. After processing the earth with worms, organic matter is formed. Its main difference from other fertilizers is considered to be its high nutritional value.
- Can be used as mulch.
At the same time, the use of a plant as a green manure also has some disadvantages:
- Demanding to the place of landing. The culture is difficult to develop in heavy or swampy soil. Therefore, it will not work to improve its structure with rapeseed.
- Inability to grow spring rapeseed in one place for more than 1 year in a row. The next time to plant a crop on the same site is allowed only after 4 years.
- Poor compatibility with some plants. After this siderata it is forbidden to plant cabbage, radish, turnip. The rapeseed itself cannot be placed on the beds where beets were previously grown. The fact is that these plants suffer from the same diseases.
Types and varieties
It is permissible to use winter and spring rapeseed as green manure. The differences between them lie in the timing of the impact on the soil:
- winter can be used for more than 1 year;
- spring is used no more than 1 season.
It is recommended to plant a two-year crop in spring. It resembles a common plant, but does not bloom. After mowing, greens are allowed to be eaten. During the season, winter rapeseed produces green mass several times. However, it is not recommended to mow the last increment. It is required to leave it in the beds in order to embed it in the ground and dig it up. This must be done to a depth of at least 15 centimeters.
Annual rapeseed quickly improves the condition of the soil. Therefore, it is permissible to plant it in the fall or early spring. After the appearance of greenery, the plant must be removed, and after 2 weeks, a new one must be planted.
In front of which crops are rapeseed
The use of rapeseed as a green manure benefits the following types of plants:
Terms and rules for planting green manure
Features of planting rapeseed depend on its variety. It is recommended to plant winter crops in autumn or late summer. If you do this a little earlier, the root rosette may outgrow. This will cause the development of various diseases or an increase in sensitivity to frost.
It is recommended to sow winter rapeseed only after harvest. This is done in 10-14 days. When planting this plant, it is recommended to make a furrow up to 3 centimeters deep. The row spacing should be 10-20 centimeters. Seed material is required to be planted in the resulting recess. After 4-5 days, shoots can be expected to appear. The growing season takes 3 months.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
The spring variety can be planted in early spring. Specific dates are determined by weather conditions. You also need to take into account the amount of precipitation in winter and the weather forecast for the near future. Spring rape does not tolerate frost and temperature fluctuations.
To facilitate the planting process, the soil must first be loosened. The grooves are made 3 centimeters deep. The row spacing should be 10-15 centimeters.
Before planting, the seeds must be mixed in equal parts with sand. For 1 square meter, you need 2 grams of seeds. After planting, the beds must be carefully sprinkled with earth. After that, the soil needs to be leveled with a rake.
The first shoots appear 4-5 days after planting. In this case, the stem begins to develop immediately. For 3-3.5 months, the bushes reach a height of 80-140 centimeters. The flowering period lasts 3-5 weeks. During the period of development, the bushes do not require special care. Rape is considered an unpretentious crop. After mowing the greenery, the soil must be dug up.
When and how to mow green mass
It is not recommended to embed spring rape into the soil. You just need to mow it. If you plan to plant the main crop, the rape must be mowed after regrowth up to 25 centimeters. After that, the greens need to be dug slightly or placed in compost. The main crop should be planted in 14-21 days.
If the soil is resting, and it is not planned to plant cultivated plants, the first time the greens need to be mowed when it grows up to 16 centimeters. This will provoke its rapid growth. If pods appear, the rapeseed should be removed immediately.
For the winter variety, the mowing time is not so important. It is recommended to take into account the weather conditions. When pods appear on the bushes, the plant should be removed. This usually happens at the end of May.
Leave the greens in place. However, it can be sprinkled with water or EM products can be used. This helps to speed up the decomposition process. After 1 month, the soil will be ready for further processing and planting of cultivated plants.
Rape is considered to be an effective green manure, which helps to improve the soil structure and increase the yield of cultivated plants. At the same time, it is important to choose the right planting time and mowing time.