Of the late winter species of apple trees, the Bogatyr variety is the most popular among gardeners. The fruits of the tree are preserved until spring without changing their qualities. The hybrid was obtained in the 1920s by the Ukrainian breeder S. Chernenko by crossing Antonovka with Renet Landsberg. The variety is valued for its plasticity, unpretentiousness, high productivity.
Description and characteristics of the Bogatyr apple tree
The main quality of the fruit crop is the appearance of large apples, it is not for nothing that they are called Red Bogatyr. They are superior in weight, and delight gardeners with a harmonious taste.
Appearance of the variety
The apple tree of the Bogatyr variety is different:
- up to 5 meters high;
- olive bark;
- thick branches;
- oval leaves, serrated along the edges, pubescent below, on reddish petioles;
- medium-sized white-pink inflorescences.
The formation of fruits of the variety is mainly on the ringlets.
In the 4th year of life, the tree yields the first apples. Their main qualities are:
- roundness with slight ribbing;
- light green skin color;
- ruddiness on the sides when exposed to the sun;
- sweet and sour taste;
- pleasant aroma;
- weight from 200 to 400 grams.
Apples can hang on branches for a long time without crumbling until they are removed.
The stamens of apple flowers are not at the same level with the anthers, therefore the Bogatyr variety is not considered self-fertile. It is necessary that pollinators grow next to the tree. Melba, Streflig, Sinap North are suitable for this quality.
If apple trees grown through a seedling yield a crop in the 4th year of life, then after budding the first fruits are obtained only after 7 years. But the yields of the variety are quite high. Up to 50-70 kilograms of fragrant fruits can be harvested from one tree. The tree produces tasty fruits every year, increasing their number with each season.
The apples of the Bogatyr variety are superior to their parents in taste. They harmoniously combine sweetness with acid, although vitamin C accounts for 12.9 per 100 grams of the product. The pulp of the fruit is white, crispy, juicy. The apples removed from the branches become tastier as they are stored.
The apple tree successfully survives the winter, but in the northern regions it is necessary to wrap it up in order to protect it from frost. The Central and Volgo-Vyatka regions are best suited for cultivation.
Advantages and disadvantages
The Bogatyr variety has many advantages. They are composed of:
- the duration of the storage of apples;
- improving their taste during storage;
- abundant harvests of fruits;
- eating apples fresh during winter and spring.
The variety is resistant to scab, tolerates frost well. Among the disadvantages of apples, their dull color is noted. Juices or jams made from green apples look ugly.
Tree planting rules
For better fruiting of apple trees, the rules and timing of planting culture must be observed.
Choice of place and timing of boarding
For seedlings of the Bogatyr apple tree, flat places in the garden with sandy loam and loamy soils are chosen. The depth of groundwater should not be higher than 2 meters to the surface of the earth.
Apple trees grow well in areas hidden from the influence of wind from the west, north and east.
Before planting, fertilizers are applied to the soil, taking 4-6 kilograms of manure per 1 square meter, 50 grams of superphosphate each, 40 - ammonium sulfate and 30 - potassium salt. Be sure to dig up a site, harrow to break up blocks of earth. The best time to plant trees is early spring before bud break. Where it snows early, apple trees can be planted until October 10th.
Pits are prepared in advance, at least 2-3 weeks before planting. A hole is made 50-60 centimeters deep, with a width of 70-80. Be sure to add 2-3 buckets of humus, superphosphate and potassium salt to the pit - 300 grams. On acidic soils, lime is needed. Its enough 200 grams. Before fertilizing, they are mixed with the ground. Having filled the hole by a third, pour a mound from 1 bucket of humus.
Required distance between trees
The seedling is placed in the middle of the pit and covered with nutritious soil. It is necessary to sprinkle the tree with earth so that the root collar is at the level of the soil surface or slightly higher.
During planting, the seedling is shaken several times so that the soil is evenly laid between the roots.
The space between trees when planting is 3-5 meters, as the tree grows and has an extensive crown. Be sure to water the tree with 3-5 buckets of water. After the liquid is absorbed, a layer of peat or humus mulch is laid in a layer of 10 centimeters.
Apple tree care
You need to take care of the Bogatyr apple tree in the same way as for other trees in the garden. It is important to properly form the crown and properly maintain the soil in the garden.
The main point of pruning a young tree is shortening the shoots, sometimes thinning them. The annual growth is removed by a third of the length. When the tree begins to bear fruit, the shoots stop shortening. You can now only cut off annual branches that go beyond the boundaries of the crown. Since the Bogatyr variety has a rare crown, it can be thinned out.
In the spring, sanitary pruning is necessary to get rid of frozen and weak shoots.
The apple tree is fed annually. From organic fertilizers, take mullein, diluting it in water 1: 5, or bird droppings - 1:12. First, you can dilute organic matter with water in a barrel in a ratio of 1: 3, and then after 3-5 days bring to the desired concentration and water. The first feeding is carried out before the buds begin to bloom, and the second after flowering.
In August, top dressing consists of superphosphate (20 grams) and potassium salt (10 grams). Mineral complexes can be replaced with wood ash. It is taken in a bucket of water 50 grams. Furrows are made along the plantings with a depth of 15 centimeters at a distance of 50 centimeters from the trunk. A bucket of solution is applied to 2-3 meters of the furrow. Dry fertilizers are also fed under a shovel.
Providing the tree with moisture is an important task during the growing season. A young tree needs more moisture, so it is watered 5-6 times per season.Moisturize especially abundantly in spring, then in June, July and after leaf fall. They take enough water on the apple tree to soak the soil half a meter deep. Usually you need 5-7 buckets of water.
The Bogatyr apple variety has medium resistance to low temperatures. Where the winters are cold, they prepare the tree, covering it with spruce branches. The trunks are whitened and wrapped with roofing paper or layers of material, matting.
If the Bogatyr apple tree is less sensitive to scab, then often on the leaves you can find circles, as if sprinkled with flour. The fungus acts on the shoots, bending them, the leaves, which turn yellow and fall off. To avoid powdery mildew infection, you need to spray the apple tree with Bordeaux liquid. It is also useful to process copper sulfate.
The drugs are effective as a prophylaxis against fruit rot. From pests, it is necessary to prevent the spread of aphids, hawthorn larvae, moths. Birds that are attracted to the garden will help cope with parasites. It is necessary to collect the foliage in the garden in time, burn it. Digging the soil in the garden in the fall is also a preventive measure.
The variety is often grafted onto the rootstocks, which give the varieties of the Bogatyr apple tree.
On a semi-dwarf rootstock, the variety reaches a height of 4 meters. The species is distinguished by deep-lying roots, a strong crown. Fruits appear on thick shoots in the 4-5th year of life.
The dwarf subspecies of the Bogatyr apple tree is obtained using the rootstocks of a dwarf variety. It turns out a hybrid with a root system lying closer to the surface, and the height of the apple tree reaches 2-3 meters.
If there is not enough space in the garden, you can get a column of the Bogatyr variety by grafting. This type of apple is especially helpful for farmers who grow "heroic" fruits for sale. The yield from one tree will be lower, but the quality of the fruit is high.
Features of cultivation in different regions
For the Bogatyr apple tree, the best place for cultivation will be climatic zones with warm summers and late start of winter. But you can grow a crop everywhere, applying the rules of agricultural technology.
Moscow region and middle lane
The ideal cultivation area for apple trees is the Moscow region and areas with similar climate and weather conditions. For a gardener, you only need to comply with the planting dates and the rules for cultivating crops. The yields will be high.
The soil composition of the region is not quite suitable for the Bogatyr apple tree. But thanks to the application of fertilizers, the tree will actively develop and give good yields. The trunk circle is kept clean, the earth is constantly loosened. Before the onset of winter, it is necessary to cover the root system, protecting it from frost.
The variety is highly resistant to low temperatures. A garden culture will be able to survive the Siberian frosts, but it is better to protect the root system of dwarf and columnar subspecies of the variety.
Apple ripening dates, when to pick and how to store
Already in September, apples ripen on the branches, but they should not be picked. Until October-November, until the frost begins, the fruits hang on the tree, only then they are removed. Harvesting early will cause the apples to become wrinkled and tough and shorten their shelf life.
"Heroic" apples can be stored for a long time, until spring, becoming more and more tasty. It is best to collect them in wooden boxes, removing previously damaged and dented fruits. You can wrap each apple in paper. The container with the harvest is placed in a cool place where the temperature is kept within + 3 ... -1 degrees.