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Wild cows appeared many years ago. They represent the ancestors of modern animals and at the same time differ in certain characteristics. Modern cows owe their origin to tours, which lived a long time ago. But, as people intervened in their habitat, the population began to rapidly decrease. Today they are already extinct. Modern animals have adopted a number of characteristics from these individuals.
Modern cows are females of the wild bull. In general, cattle are divided into 2 large genera - buffalo and bull-like. It is noteworthy that when they are crossed, it will not be possible to get offspring. Bulls are divided into 4 varieties:
- tour - all cattle originated from him;
- gayal, gaur, banteng - cattle living in the south of Asia;
- yak - originally from the central part of Asia;
According to historical records, in Central Asia, the turs lived until the beginning of the seventeenth century, while in Africa they disappeared much earlier.
Today cows are divided into the following types:
- Dairy - they are grown for milk production. Due to the lean constitution of animals, it is unprofitable to breed for beef. Therefore, such individuals are not eaten. The advantage of animals in this direction is considered to be a calm and balanced character.
- Meat - are large in size. Due to the rapid growth of muscle mass, animals provide a lot of quality meat.
- Combined - are considered universal. They are able to combine the qualities of 2 directions.
Description of wild cows
Wild cows come in many varieties. Each of them has certain features.
All types of cows owe their origin to the wild bulls. They lived long enough. As people intervene in their environment, the population has decreased significantly. The last individual was identified in 1627. After which the animals became extinct. It is worth noting that the last individuals died due to diseases associated with a weakened immune system.
Tours were considered the largest ungulates. According to research, they reached 2 meters in height and 800 kilograms in weight. The tours were characterized by a muscular body and large sharp horns up to 1 meter in size. There was a hump on the shoulders. The animals are characterized by a dark brown color. The tours lived in herds in the steppe. They were headed by females. Animals were distinguished by a calm disposition, but at the same time they could show aggression. They could defeat any predatory animal.
The animal is characterized by its large size and impressive appearance. The bison reaches a length of up to 3 meters. At the withers, the height is 2 meters. The animal is characterized by a large head. There are short horns on it, diverging in different directions. Moreover, their ends are bent inward. Animals have a short and powerful neck. In this case, a hump is located at the nape. Males weigh about 1.2 tons, while females weigh less than 700 kilograms.
Strong, squat legs are characteristic of animals. They have a short tail, which is decorated with a tassel at the end. Bison are distinguished by good hearing and smell. The body is covered with gray wool.
These individuals are native to the south of Europe. Subsequently, they came to Eurasia and were brought to North America. The first animals were twice the size of modern representatives. They live in large herds of up to 20,000 bison.
The adult males are considered the leaders of the herd. In nature, bison live for 20 years. There are forest and steppe species. To expand their habitat, bison were settled in North America. They are now found in northwestern Canada. They also live in British Columbia.
This bull-like animal is the largest representative of modern European fauna. Adult animals reach 2.3-3.5 meters in length. The height at the withers reaches 2 meters. The skull reaches 50 centimeters in length. Animals are distinguished by a short and thick neck. The live weight of individuals is 1 ton.
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Animals are characterized by a massive build. In this case, the front part is considered more developed than the back. The tail reaches 60 centimeters in length. Animals are brown in color.
Bison are considered the descendants of a primitive animal - bison priscus, which lives in Eurasia. Initially, they lived in vast areas. Individuals were found on the Iberian Peninsula, in Western Siberia, in the countries of Scandinavia. Bison also live in England.
Today in Europe there are only 2 main species left - the European lowland and the Caucasian. They live in deciduous, deciduous or mixed forests. Bison are also found in meadows. In addition to grass, animals require wood. They eat fragments of many trees - aspen, hornbeam, willow. At the same time, bison can use different parts of plants - thin twigs, foliage, bark.
This term is understood as an Asian cow, which is suitable for a hot and humid climate. Initially, the animals come from South Asia. They are large. The average height is 1.5 meters and the body length is 1.6. Zebu have an elongated head and neck. There is a pronounced fold under the neck, and a large hump is located on the nape.
The head is distinguished by an elongated shape and a convex forehead. Bulls weigh 900 kilograms, and cows - about 600. Animals are distinguished by high legs. Thanks to this, they can actively move. They are characterized by dense skin, which is covered with sparse hairs. The color is white. There is also a light brown color.
Zebu feed on grass and foliage. They can also absorb thin twigs. Zebu are able to travel impressive distances to find food. They live in the subtropics and tropics. In addition to India, individuals live in Asia and Africa. They are also found in Korea and Japan. Zebu also live in the USA, Madagascar, Brazil.
A bull with this name is considered the largest. It is still found in the wild today. The body size of this animal is surprising. Its height reaches 3 meters, and its weight is 1600 kilograms. Sometimes such individuals are even called Indian bison.
Despite their large size, gauras have a calm disposition. Animals are considered fearless, so even tigers are wary of them. Bulls have a dark brown tint. She is short and shiny. The horns reach 90 centimeters. They are vertical and crescent-like.
The largest animal population is present in India. In this country, a domesticated variety of gaura was also bred, which is called gayal. Such individuals are characterized by smaller sizes and are often used on the farm.
Such bulls are often found in the southern regions. Their population is still preserved in nature, but it is gradually decreasing. There are 2 types of individuals - Asian and African. The second variety is characterized by large sizes. Their body is covered with black hair. It can also be dark brown. The animals reach 1.6 meters in height and weigh 1 ton. African buffaloes live near water sources. They are distinguished by a pronounced herd instinct. This is due to the need to protect against natural enemies. These include lions and crocodiles.
Indian buffaloes have many subspecies. Large representatives reach 2 meters. Small wild bulls are called anoa. They reach a height of 80 centimeters. Moreover, their weight is 300 kilograms.
Although these animals are included in the Red Book, they continue to be hunted. This is due to the popularity of the skins among tourists visiting Asia.
The population of large Asian bulls in nature is constantly decreasing. This is due to the invasion of people into their habitat. Many individuals have been successfully domesticated. Calm character, excellent productivity and unpretentiousness allow you to cross buffaloes with domestic bulls.
Yaks are originally from Tibet. They are pack individuals that live in nature in small herds or alone. The life span reaches several decades.
Yaks have a number of features. The length of the body of the male is 4.3 meters, of the female - no more than 3. The tail grows up to 1 meter. Animals are characterized by a low head position. The presence of a hump makes the back sloping. At the withers, they reach a height of 2 meters. Moreover, the weight is 1 ton.
There are long horns on the head. They are widely spaced. With a length of horns reach 95 centimeters. They differ in a curved shape and diverge in different directions. The coat is gray-black in color. It is also dark brown. The coat is long and shaggy. It completely covers the limbs.
Today, yaks live not only in the mountains of Tibet. They also live in other regions. Animals tolerate frost easily. The long coat allows them to withstand temperatures as low as -35 degrees.
Yaks live in the mountains of Pakistan and Afghanistan. They are bred on Iranian, Chinese, Mongolian farms. Also, single specimens are found in Buryatia and Altai. At the same time, human intervention in the habitats of animals leads to a significant reduction in their population. Therefore, today yaks are listed in the Red Book. It should be borne in mind that the yak is a dangerous animal that is capable of engaging in a duel with a person at any time.
This type of bull is rare. They live in southeast Asia. Bantengs were domesticated several hundred years ago. They eventually ended up in Australia, which led to the emergence of another population there.
Bulls are characterized by a short coat that stands out with a smooth texture. Males differ from females in size and color. The body of the males is covered with dark hair. Females are light brown or red in color. There are many varieties of wild cows. They differ in certain features. Many of these species are considered rare, and therefore are listed in the Red Book.