Pruning cherries is an important part of proper gardening care. Despite the widespread opinion about the traumatic factor of pruning, cherry trees need to be formed and must be performed in accordance with the basic rules and requirements.
Beginning gardeners very often make mistakes when cutting crops, as a result of which the tree can weaken and poorly endure the winter period and even die.
The need for a procedure
There are several purposes for the removal of branches, but all of them involve improving the state of the cherry tree:
- proper formation of the crown of the plant;
- extension of fruiting;
- preventing cherry tree depletion;
- reducing the risk of pests and diseases;
- achievement of a well-groomed and accurate appearance of the plant.
After the procedure, the cherry tree redistributes a significant part of the vitality to the formation of the crop, which becomes better and more stable.
So, subject to the rules of pruning, which should take into account the characteristics of the growth of the plant and the level of fruiting, this event improves the viability of the tree and has a beneficial effect on fertility, lengthening the performance of the productive period.
Not only the correct execution of the work depends on the quality of the tool, but also the time frame for which the tree can recover. To carry out such a procedure should use:
- garden knife, necessary when working with thin branches;
- a saw to remove tree branches of considerable diameter;
- garden secateurs.
The entire tool should be kept clean and as sharp as possible. In addition, when carrying out work, it will be necessary to use a garden var, which processes all places of cuts.
Features pruning bush and tree cherries
The main difference between these forms of cherry is the type of fruiting. Shrub-like varieties form the bulk of flower buds at annual growths, and with age, such branches become thicker and sag. Tree cherries form the bulk of flower buds on bouquet branches, who can live more than five years, but in the middle zone of our country freeze at an earlier date.
When exposing the end of the branches, it is necessary to shorten them by a third or half of the shoot length, which depends on the size. Skeletal and semi-skeletal branches are shortened to the lateral branch, which is characterized by good development and growth in the upward direction. It is allowed to cut them to the level of sleeping kidneys.
Removal of skeletal and semi-skeletal branches alternate over the years, which will make it easier for the plant to undergo the procedure. The resulting one-year increments are not subject to removal. To increase branching, shoots whose length exceeds half a meter should be cut. Trimming to the side branch is more effective than ring cutting.
In addition to thinning the thickened crown, proper pruning removes the forks, and also contributes to the strengthening of fruit branches and the formation of subordination of branches. Only long branches are subject to shortening.
When the annual growth increments of 15 centimeters are reached and the base of the skeletal branches is exposed, anti-aging pruning is performed on five-year-old wood. Tree pruning restricts tree growth when the plant reaches a height of 3 meters. In this case, trimming by transferring the main and skeletal branches to pronounced lateral branches is effective.
How to prune a cherry in spring
Features pruning fruiting and old cherries
It is very important to focus not only on the type of plant, but also on its age characteristics. Attention and timely shortening of branches requires not only recently planted plants, but also old ones that require rejuvenation.
The basis of pruning a young cherry is the formation of a regular crown, as well as preventing excessive thickening, which requires trimming of branches growing inward. Ensuring proper growth from the first year contributes to the uniform development of the tree and reduces the risk of fruiting problems. At this stage, it is important to identify skeletal branches.
Old trees need careful care and rejuvenation. On such plants, it is required to prune all old and ceased to bear fruit branches. Sick branches require special attention, which should be cut to healthy wood. If there are branches on the old cherry that are strongly inclined downward with a low level of nutrient intake, then they must also be removed.
By pruning fruiting cherry trees, you should reduce the length of the bare branches, as well as reduce the path of nutrient components from roots to crowns. Developed annual growths are cut minimally.
- When working with a tree plant, you should direct the growing branches outward. Strongly close branches need to be separated by trimming over the side branches. With a strong exposure of branches, trimming of skeletal branches should be maximum.
- With a decrease in growths on skeletal branches of a bush-bearing fruit-bearing form up to 20 centimeters, continuous exposure of the branches is observed, which requires weak rejuvenation in the form of partial removal of skeletal branches of the first and second orders. At the same time, it is required to thin out the crown as much as possible by getting rid of thickening branches.
With a correctly formed crown, the fruitful value of the bare ends of the old branches becomes insignificant and the main yield is observed on the branches of renewal.
When to cut a cherry
Of no small importance are the timing of the work. Spring pruning allows the tree to move faster from the winter rest period, and carrying out the procedure in the fall helps the plant prepare for winter. The cropping pattern in autumn and spring has slight differences.
How to crop in the fall
Dates may vary depending on the region of cultivation. In the southern regions, such work is allowed until the last decade of October. In the northern region, all plants should be cut off in mid-September. The main indicator is the slowdown of sap flow, which characterizes the completion of the growing season.
The standard operation scheme is as follows:
- We cut off all large branches that interfere with the normal development of the rest, with the exception of crown-forming skeletal branches. The remote branch should have a replacement, which will increase the anti-aging effect and will not adversely affect the yield of the tree.
- It is necessary to remove all branches extending from the stem at an acute angle.
All places of cuts should be subjected to careful processing by garden var or other special means.
Spring pruning technology
Spring pruning is key to plant formation. The annual implementation of such a procedure in April allows you to get an abundant fruiting and beautiful tree.
The standard spring pruning scheme is as follows:
- Removal of all branches thickening the crown of the tree, with the exception of branches located parallel to the soil.
- Removing branches that impede the full development and growth of the rest.
- If the main trunk rises above the frame branches by more than 20 centimeters, then you need to trim it.
Work must be completed before the period of active sap flow. Clipping of felt cherries requires special attention, the excessive thickening of the crown of which negatively affects the yield of the plant.
Care after trimming
Not later than a day after pruning, thoroughly treat all sections with antiseptic preparations, cover with oil paint or garden varnish. No special features in the subsequent care of the culture are usually required.
Autumn pruning cherry
The main efforts of the gardener during this period should be aimed at observing the technology of plant cultivation. Leaving consists in carrying out regular watering, timely fertilizing, as well as loosening and weeding the soil around the trees. It is very important to remember that at the first time after pruning, the plant can be weakened, and at the stage of adaptation, attention should be paid to measures to protect it from damage by parasites and major diseases.