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Today it is impossible to do without the use of acaricides in the process of growing plants. Consider the classification of these drugs, the mechanism of action and the method of penetration, the frequency of use, how long the effect of the drugs lasts, and how they affect the environment. How to use acaricides according to the instructions, the advantages and disadvantages of the best modern drugs.
What is acaricide
This is the general name for an agrochemical mite control agent. Acaricidal drugs are divided into 3 groups:
- Insectoacaricides that can kill ticks and insects at the same time. These include FOS, some pyrethroids, agents that contain inorganic sulfur.
- Specific acaricides act only on ticks. These include preparations with sulfur, bromine, and heterocycles with nitrogen.
- Acarofungicides can kill ticks and disease-causing fungi.
Acaricides are used for plants grown in agricultural enterprises, on the plots of farmers and in private households.
Classification of acaricides
Means have different active substances in the composition, and therefore a different effect on ticks. Consider the main classes of acaricides and typical drugs.
They are chemical and biological. The main crops treated with insectoacaricides are cereals, vegetables, melons, industrial crops, fruit and potatoes. These include drugs "Aktara", "Force", "Karate Zeon", "Vertimek", "Engio" and others. Insectoacaricides do not accumulate in plant tissues, do not remain in the soil, and decompose quickly.
Pyrethroids are found in dalmatian chamomile flowers, their analogs are artificially reproduced synthetic pyrethroids, in which the structure and mechanism of action are similar to natural ones. Preparations with pyrethroids are used to exterminate ticks in garden and horticultural crops, pests of stocks, ticks in everyday life, they are used to treat animals from parasites. Examples of drugs: "Iskra", "Altair", "Alfabel", "Alfashans", "Tsunami", "Fatrin", "Pinocid".
In addition to acaricidal, they have a fungicidal effect. Contact type drugs. Examples: colloidal sulfur, "Propargite", "Cumulus", "Tiovit Jet".
This class includes products with bromopropylate ("Neoron", "Polisan"). They are used on grapes, berries, fruit trees, bushes against fruit and spider webs. Means act by contact, intestinal and as fumigants.
Heterocycles with nitrogen
In addition to products with bromopropylate, this class of acaricides is distinguished by functionality and noticeable effectiveness. Heterocycles act on eggs, adult pests are not destroyed, but become sterile. Because of this, the growth of the number of ticks slows down sharply. The heterocycles include the drugs Pyridaben, Phenazahin and Clofentezin.
Method of penetration and mechanism of action
Acaricides mainly act as contact agents, but in the mechanism of action they differ depending on the effect of the active substance. There are also fumigants, such as magnesium phosphide or methyl bromide, which are used to treat grain mites. They release toxic gas that paralyzes pests. Methyl bromide acts not only on ticks, but also on their eggs.
Ticks are susceptible to toxins as soon as they leave the eggs and when they are in the juvenile larval stage. In older ages, adults also acquire some stability, so you need to try to process them as early as possible.
How long does the effect last?
If there are many mites on the plants, you need to use agents with a pronounced initial toxicity. Use low-toxic drugs simultaneously with FOS or highly toxic acaricides ("Pyridaben").
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
Longest of all drugs "Propargit" works (up to 15-20 days). The effectiveness of some acaricides, such as bromopropylate, is fully manifested even in cold weather.
In order for acaricides to be able to show maximum performance, it is necessary to process the plants so that the leaves and stems are completely moistened. The frequency of spraying is different, from 1 to 2-3 times. The period before harvesting the fruits is also different - from several days to 2 months, it all depends on the toxicity of the substance, dosage and consumption of the solution.
Resistant to the environment
How effective the use of specific acaricides will be, and the number of sprays depend on the resistance of the drug and the duration of its preservation on the surface of the plants.
Impact on the environment, people and pets
Among the popular acaricides, there are many drugs that act not only on the object of their application - ticks, but also on insects - harmful and useful, primarily on bees, as well as entomophages. You need to pay attention to this parameter when choosing a drug for processing.
Toxicity to humans and animals is expressed in irritating effects on the skin and mucous membranes, as well as in a toxic effect if ingested. The degree of toxicity is expressed in hazard classes from 1 to 4, where 1 is the greatest hazard, 4 is the lowest. For household use, products with class 4 are produced, for processing plants in the household - 3 and 4.
Instructions for the use of acaricides
The effectiveness of acaricidal drugs depends on the correct use. First you need to properly prepare the solution. Plastic, glass or enamel containers are suitable for stirring, metal containers are excluded. Always wear rubber gloves to avoid damaging your skin.
The preparation method for many acaricides is similar: first, dilute the required amount of the drug in a third or half of the volume of water until it is completely dissolved. Then add the remaining volume and stir again. Pour into sprayer tank. The dosage, as well as the consumption, are indicated for each agent in the instructions, which must be strictly adhered to, not to exceed the norm.
Use the prepared solution immediately and in full, store no longer than 1 day. Do not use the solution after the expiration date. Do not use expired funds, the effectiveness of which is sharply reduced.
Plants should not be sprayed in sunny weather, in cloudy weather, before rain or in the morning after dew. The same goes for the wind: it is necessary to work on days when it is not, so that the solution does not drift to the side. The average temperature at which most acaricides work well is 15-25 ˚С. If processed at temperatures below this range, a decrease in efficiency can be expected.
Process the plants thoroughly, from all sides, leaves and stems must be moistened completely. The thoroughness of the spraying determines how effective the drug will show itself.
Acaricides can be mixed with other agricultural products only if it is known for sure that they will not interfere with each other's action. But, in most cases, they are used separately. When processing indoor plants, the following rules apply: remove people and animals from the room. Wear a respirator, goggles and rubber gloves. After processing, it is advisable to ventilate the room.
The best modern drugs
The new acaricides are fast-acting, they can be used to treat many plant species, and they are not as toxic to the environment as the previously popular drugs. Consider the advantages and disadvantages of modern acaricides.
Benefits of the drug:
- active against ticks at all stages of development;
- not addictive;
- has a detrimental effect on sucking insects;
- speed of action - ticks stop feeding after 1.5 hours, die after 3-4 days;
- active at any permissible temperature;
- rain that has passed 2 hours after treatment no longer affects the result.
Disadvantages: Applies only to apple trees.
- prolonged action;
- destroys eggs;
- effective against spider mites;
- long-term toxic effect (at least 1 month);
- does not kill beneficial mites.
Disadvantages: high consumption of the solution when applied to fruit and grapes.
Benefits of the drug:
- a wide range of actions;
- kills pests at all stages;
- the mechanism of action is unique;
- destroys eggs;
- "Knockdown" effect;
- not addictive;
- compatible with biological products.
Cons of the product: high consumption for greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers.
- acts on larvae, adult pests and egg-laying;
- pronounced initial toxicity;
- long-term plant protection;
- does not kill useful predatory mites;
- can be used at a wide temperature range;
- allowed to use on flowering plants;
- compatible in working mixtures.
Cons: Applies only to apple and grapes.
Dust mite detergent for washing clothes in the washing machine. Advantages:
- health safety;
- eliminates pests at all stages.
Disadvantages: high cost.
Means for processing furniture. Advantages:
- easy to use;
- on a natural basis;
- stops the development and disrupts the nutrition of pests.
Cons: Has a slight onion smell, requires repeated treatments.
Acaricide spray for processing fabrics, carpets, pillows, mattresses. Benefits:
- kills pests quickly;
- destroys allergens;
- long-term action;
- safe for people, animals.
Cons: Repeated treatments are necessary to completely kill the mites.
Acaricides are a specific group of drugs designed specifically for the extermination of many species of ticks. They belong to different classes, the classification is formed on the basis of the mechanism of action and the active substances in the composition. They differ in the level of toxic effects on humans, beneficial insects, animals, plants.
There are differences in the speed of action, the duration of the protection effect, the frequency of treatments and the time that must elapse before the permitted collection of fruits. The drugs have different dosage and consumption, there are peculiarities in their use. Information about this is in the instructions from the manufacturer.
For all acaricides, the rules for the preparation of the solution and its use are correct. During work, you must adhere to safety precautions, work with protective equipment to avoid skin damage or poisoning.