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As a natural green manure, peas are considered the best organic fertilizer for restoring soil composition. With the help of an annual plant, it is possible in a short time to improve the saturation of the soil with minerals, and the unpretentiousness of cultivation does not cause the need to spend energy on caring for the plant. To saturate the soil with useful elements and restore its properties, it is recommended to learn about the rules and peculiarities of using the culture as green manure.
Benefits of peas as green manure
The main advantage of legume green manure is its effectiveness in restoring soil quality. The plant is characterized by intensive growth, the performance of which is one of the best among other green manures. In terms of growth rate, it ranks first among legumes.
The legume species has the ability to accumulate nitrogen and other nutrients, and then easily give them to the soil, making it more fertile. The advantage of a crop for improving soil quality is considered:
- growth rate;
- frost resistance;
- low cost of planting material;
- the opportunity to get tasty fruits and at the same time improve the quality of the soil;
- ease of harvesting, such work does not require special devices;
- good result in increasing soil fertility;
- the ability to quickly improve the quality of the soil;
- unpretentious cultivation.
In addition to enriching the soil, green peas minimizes the number of weeds and helps prevent the appearance of pathogenic bacteria. The plant belongs to the group of excellent melliferous plants, which helps to attract beneficial insects, which are natural enemies of garden pests.
How do they affect the soil?
With the growth of a horticultural culture, the soil is naturally loosened, which leads to a better penetration of water and air into the ground. Planting other horticultural crops in the future will contribute to their better growth, so they will take roots through the already existing air passages.
Planting a legume plant leads to replenishment of the nutritional value of the soil, it contributes to the saturation of the soil with nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and many other trace elements. Pea roots prevent soil erosion and block the growth of weeds.
When and where to plant peas for green manure?
Sowing green manure can be done throughout the season, including before planting the main crop and after harvesting. Spring is considered the best time to plant. The possibility of carrying out work is determined depending on the region, it is possible to sow peas after there are no threats of severe frosts. In most Russian regions, open field sowing is carried out in May. After 2 weeks from the moment of the first planting, the seeds are planted, which prolongs the growth time of the plant.
The plant loves soil after nightshades, so it is recommended to plant it in the place of previous growth of potatoes or tomatoes. It is not recommended to plant legumes twice in the same place. Seeds can be planted dry, but high germination is observed after soaking in water for 4 hours.
Peas are sown to a depth of 5 cm, 2-3 cm are left between them, 25 cm are left between the rows. At 1 m2 there should be about 100 peas. The following rules should be adhered to:
- watering is carried out only during drought;
- until the moment of germination, it is recommended to pull the net, as birds like to eat seeds;
- the planting site must be periodically cleaned of weeds;
- shoots need additional support for better growth.
To prevent diseases of peas, it is recommended to sow mustard or basil at the planting site, such plants repel most pests of legumes.
For which crops is it suitable?
In the beds after peas, cereals and nightshade crops take root well. Most often, peas are used in home gardens for tomatoes and potatoes. Planting legumes is recommended for planting white cabbage and cauliflower. The plant quickly goes to the resting period, so it can be mowed green, when decaying, long shoots and a developed root system of the plant contribute to the saturation of the soil with nutrients that are required for the growth of other crops.
When and how to remove siderate peas?
Siderat peas grow until the time comes to plant the main horticultural crop. Full maturation occurs at 12 weeks, some species require 16 weeks for this. There are several options for cleaning a plant:
- a simple way is a simple digging of the site, in which the green manure is embedded in the soil, and the main crop sits on top;
- the use of a flat cutter, with the help of which the green manure stalks are cut a couple of centimeters deeper than the soil level, after which a vegetable crop is planted, the cut tops are used to mulch the soil;
- holes are made next to the main crop and the peas grow with the plant, as soon as the legume crop germinates 5 cm, the shoots are cut with scissors and placed on the breast.
The last method is laborious, but effective. To obtain natural fertilizer, pea stalks can be cut and soaked in boiling water for 10 days. This product is a valuable source of nitrogen and potassium.
What diseases and pests does it help against?
Peas are effective against wireworms. Such a larva appears in acidic soils and is a threat to potato crops. The wireworm does not tolerate the neighborhood with legumes, therefore the plant is considered an effective means of combating such a pest.
Planting peas helps to cope with the root onion mite. The planting site of the legume culture attracts many beneficial insects, since the plant has excellent melliferous qualities.