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Planting and caring for daylilies in the open field have many features. This perennial plant has been known to people for a long time. Today it is actively used in landscape design to decorate flower beds and mixborders. In order for the plant to bloom luxuriantly and profusely and develop normally, it is recommended to properly care for it. The flower needs timely watering, feeding, pruning. Preparation of the plant for winter is also important.
Features and description of culture
Daylily has thick and fleshy adventitious roots. They protect the crop from drought. Basal leaves have a broad-linear shape. They can be straight or curved. Flowers are most often funnel-shaped. They differ in appearance and are yellow, brown-red, orange. Inflorescences include several flowers. A maximum of 3 flowers can bloom at the same time. In this case, flowering lasts 20 days.
One or several leafy peduncles may be present on the bush. They vary in length. Depending on the variety, flower stalks reach 0.3-1 meters. After flowering is complete, fruits are formed. They are triangular boxes filled with seeds.
Benefits of using in landscaping
Daylily is often used in landscape design. For this, wild crops and hybrid varieties are used. The flower can be planted alone or made part of the composition. The plant goes well with other flowers - tulips, dahlias, delphiniums. It can be combined with crocuses, irises, hyacinths. The culture goes well with conifers, cereals, deciduous bushes. Small bushes complement alpine slides and flower beds well.
High varieties can be used to create hedges and curbs. The flower grows well near ponds, lakes, streams. Scented crops can be located near recreation sites. When choosing a place for a daylily, it is recommended to ensure that it does not merge with buildings.
Crops with bright or dark flowers do well in well-lit areas. Thanks to this, the petals will have a rich color. Light varieties grow well in shady places. After flowering, the leaves dry out and lose their decorative properties. This feature should certainly be taken into account when creating a flower bed.
Basic requirements for growing
In order for the plant to develop normally and bloom magnificently, it is recommended that it provide optimal conditions.
Illumination of the place
The plant is undemanding to planting conditions. It is allowed to be planted in the shade or partial shade. However, it will be possible to achieve bright flowering only in a sunny place. If you plant a bush in a shady area, its color will become pale. In this case, the daylily blooms late and fades early.
The growing season of the crop begins early enough. This happens immediately after the snow melts and the frost ends, when the temperature at night is at least 0 degrees. Typically, daylilies begin to awaken in mid-April.
In autumn, temperature parameters at night can be less than -3 degrees. In such conditions, the leaves of the flower begin to wither. With the early onset of autumn frosts, the foliage withers, not having time to turn yellow.
In a cold summer, the flowering of the daylily is significantly disturbed. In this case, the buds become small and do not open completely. Sometimes they do not bloom at all, but wither and crumble. With strong summer heat, the flowering period of the daylily is significantly reduced. The bright sun burns the foliage of the bushes.
The culture is considered to be very moisture-loving. To achieve lush flowering and normal plant development, it is recommended to water it in a timely manner. This is especially important in dry weather.
Required soil composition
The plant is considered undemanding to the composition of the soil. It can grow in any garden soil. However, it will be possible to get the most abundant flowering when growing crops in light and fertile soil. If the soil on the site is not ideal, it can be improved. So, it is recommended to add compost and sand to clay soil. Sandy soil should be mixed with clay. Sod-podzolic soil is recommended to be diluted with compost.
Best and worst neighbors
Daylilies are suitable for single and group plantings. They can be combined with various shrubs - for example, viburnum or panicle hydrangea. Ornamental cereals, dotted loosestrife, yarrow, and physostegia are perfect as additions. Experienced growers do not recommend combining a flower with tall trees, as this will lead to competition and oppression of the plant.
How to plant a flower outdoors
In order for the culture to grow quickly and delight with lush flowering, it is worth paying attention to planting work.
Determining the landing site
Daylily grows best in a sunny, well-lit place. The exception is varieties with dark inflorescences. They quickly fade when exposed to bright sunlight. Such crops are recommended to be placed in partial shade.
Choosing high-quality planting material
To achieve success in growing a crop, it is recommended to pay attention to the choice of a seedling. It must be strong and of high quality. There should be no damaged areas or signs of decay on the plant. It is recommended to carefully examine the culture before planting. If necessary, it is worth pruning dead roots. Then it is recommended to soak the roots of the daylily in a growth stimulator.
Recommended timing of sowing crops
It is allowed to plant a crop at different times - from spring to autumn. Specific dates should be chosen taking into account the climatic characteristics of the region. With the early onset of winter during autumn planting, the daylily will not take root, which will entail its death. It takes 1 month to adapt to new cultural conditions.
In the middle lane, experienced florists recommend planting a plant in May or August. The division of the bush and the transplantation of the culture should also be carried out in the spring or late summer.
Step-by-step landing algorithm
It is recommended to plant daylilies in the ground in cool weather. In this case, it is worth observing the following sequence of actions:
- Dig a well for planting. It should be sized to fit all the roots of the flower and leave a little space on the sides. On average, the depth of the hole is made 30 centimeters, and the diameter is 40 centimeters.
- Fill in a small hill in the center of the depression. It is worth placing the root system of the flower on it. In this case, it is recommended to carefully straighten all the roots. They should be directed to the sides and down at a small angle.
- Determine the correct deepening level. In this case, you should focus on the light green strip at the base of the outlets. After placing the bush, it is recommended to sprinkle it with earth.
- Water the bush abundantly with warm water. However, it is forbidden to get on the foliage.
The root neck of the culture should not be deepened by more than 2-3 centimeters. It is also recommended to ensure that no bare roots remain on the surface.
After planting, it is recommended to cover the soil in the center of the flower bed with a mulch layer, which will help retain moisture.
How to care for a flower in the garden
This plant is unpretentious. However, in order to achieve lush flowering, it is recommended to properly care for it.
Watering and feeding
Daylilies are drought tolerant. They have a developed root system and have the ability to accumulate moisture. The need for watering depends on the growing season. It is especially important to moisturize the soil during flowering. It lasts almost 2 months. At the same time, it is worth watering the bush abundantly enough to moisten the soil by 30-40 centimeters.
After planting, it is recommended to water the plant once a week. In this case, water is allowed to be poured at the root or use the sprinkling method. However, the ingress of water on the petals of flowers can lead to stains, which negatively affects the decorative properties.
In order for the culture to fully develop, it is recommended to feed it in a timely manner. Moreover, the composition and amount of fertilizers depend on the seasonal factor and the age of the crop. Mature bushes have a great need for nutrients. At the beginning of the growing season, it is recommended to feed the bushes with nitrogen. This substance provides fast growth of the leaves. Subsequently, the culture should be fertilized with phosphorus and potassium.
Loosening the soil
It is recommended to loosen the soil after each watering. It contributes to the saturation of the root system with oxygen and nutrients. In the process of loosening, you should definitely get rid of weeds.
It is recommended to prune the daylily periodically. This procedure has certain characteristics, taking into account the seasonal factor.
The need for pruning
Timely pruning helps to make the bush more lush and increase its decorative properties. It is recommended to carry out the procedure during the entire growing season - with the arrival of spring and after flowering.
When is best: spring or autumn
It is recommended to prune the daylily several times during the season. The further development and appearance of the bush depends on this. The procedure should be carried out in spring and autumn. Moreover, each trim has certain features.
Scheme and instructions for pruning daylilies
Spring pruning is very important for the normal development of the flower. This procedure prepares the bush for flowering and helps to awaken from the winter dormant period. At this stage, it is recommended to cut off all excess leaves and plant fragments. It is imperative to remove wilted or withered parts of the flower. Otherwise, they will affect healthy fragments of the culture. With the arrival of cold weather, it is again worth carefully examining the bush for the presence of withered foliage. If possible, it is recommended to cut it off immediately.
When to transplant daylilies
There are no specific dates for transplanting the daylily to a new location. The plant normally transfers movement to another area. Most often, flower growers carry out this procedure in the spring or late summer. However, there are other options as well.
In the spring
To transplant the daylily in the spring, it is recommended to wait until the soil is fully warmed up. This usually happens in mid-April or mid-May - it all depends on the climate of the region. For the procedure, the daylily is recommended to be dug out of the soil with a lump of earth. This must be done as carefully as possible so as not to damage the roots of the plant. Then the culture should be placed in a container with water or under a stream. This will help get rid of excess soil and carefully examine the roots. If necessary, it is recommended to cut them to 15-20 centimeters.
If there is a need for reproduction of the culture, the bush is divided into fragments. Then fertilizer should be added to the prepared recess and a bush or cut should be placed in it. Then pour abundantly and sprinkle with earth. Then the bush must be compacted and watered again. This will help remove air trapped between the roots. In the spring, replanting the plant is necessary in the evening.
Large-rooted crops transplanted in spring will bloom magnificently in the same year. Delenes with small roots will form buds only in the next season.
If necessary, the bush can be transplanted to a new location in August. In this case, it is recommended to handle the roots as carefully as possible. They should not be cut or divided. In this case, it is permissible to remove the rotten areas and sprinkle the areas of the cuts with ash. A plant transferred to a new place is recommended to be systematically watered. Regular loosening of the soil and removal of weeds is also important. In the summer, it is allowed to transfer culture to a new place only in the evening.
An autumn transplant is recommended before the arrival of frost and cold weather. Depending on the climate of the region, it is held in September or October. When carrying out an autumn transplant, it is important to ensure that the bush has time to adapt to new conditions before the arrival of frost. It is better to carry out this procedure during the daytime.
Features of preparing culture for winter in the regions
To prepare the plant for winter, it is necessary to take into account the climatic characteristics of the region. The variety of culture is of no small importance.
In the Urals and Siberia
In a harsh climate, the daylily is difficult to survive the winter. Even if you cover the plant with high quality, during prolonged frosts below -35 degrees, it may die. Therefore, experienced flower growers advise to carefully dig up daylilies with a lump of soil and keep them in a dry cellar or basement all winter.
It is also permissible to carefully dig out the rhizomes of the flowers and place them in the substrate or sand in the cellar. In this case, it is important to systematically check the state of the culture. There should be no areas of dryness or decay on it. In the spring, the daylily is planted in open ground.
In the Volga region
In order to prepare the plant for winter this year, it must be covered with peat, bark and spruce branches. In this case, the thickness of the mulching layer should be at least 10-15 centimeters. In winter, it is recommended to monitor the state of the plantings. If necessary, it is worth adding snow to protect the crop from frost.
In the middle lane
In the Moscow region, the plant also needs to be properly prepared for winter. It is best to cover the crop with mulch or non-woven materials. In some cases, the plant is able to withstand the winter even without shelter. However, experienced growers do not advise taking risks, especially if southern hybrid varieties are grown that are not used to long frosts.
Daylilies can be propagated vegetatively or by seed. Each of the options has certain characteristics.
Dividing the bush
This breeding method is considered the most common. It allows you to preserve all the varietal characteristics of the mother culture. At the same time, it is permissible to use different methods of separating flowers - with digging the plant out of the ground or without removing it from the ground.
In the first case, it is recommended to dig the bush from the ground along with the root. Then rinse the rhizome with water. This will help remove pests and make it easier to divide the bush. After that, it is necessary to remove the peduncle and foliage. In this case, you need to leave shoots 10-15 centimeters in size.
It is recommended to dry old bushes and cut them into fragments. Each of them should have a part of the root collar with a bud. In order to achieve the formation of more beautiful greenery, it is worth leaving 3-5 shoots on the dealerships.
With a strong overgrowth of bushes, it can be quite difficult to separate them. In such crops, young roots grow at the edges. These fragments take root immediately after separation. Delenk from the central part of the daylily need time to grow. Therefore, they first need to be planted on a temporary bed, and after 1-2 years they should be planted on a permanent site.
Young rosettes can be separated from loose bushes at the end of summer. This does not require digging up the main plant. For the procedure, bushes 2-3 years old with their own roots are suitable.
Without digging, it is permissible to divide daylilies that do not grow much. To do this, you need to cut the bush with a sharp shovel, cut it from the bottom and pull the cuttings out of the ground.It is recommended to sprinkle damaged fragments on the roots with wood ash.
Some varieties that bloom in August form 1-3 new bushes in the axils of the peduncles. As they grow, new leaves and root tubercles appear on them. After the peduncle dries, the rosettes can be carefully separated from the main plant. It is also permissible to cut off cuttings with a piece of stem measuring 3-5 centimeters.
It is recommended to shorten the leaves on rosettes by a third, and then plant them in a nutritious soil for rooting. Plants need to be systematically sprayed and shaded.
This breeding method is mainly used by breeders. It helps to develop new varieties of crops. It should be borne in mind that daylily seeds cannot be stored for a long time. It is recommended to plant them immediately before winter or put them off until spring. The planting material needs cold stratification, and during winter sowing, this procedure takes place in the soil in a natural way.
If a spring planting is planned, the seeds must first be held at a low temperature for a month. In this case, the optimal parameters are + 2-3 degrees. With the arrival of spring, seeds are planted in the ground by 2-3 centimeters. Such plants will be able to bloom only after 2-3 years.
Common mistakes when caring for a plant
When growing a crop, novice florists make many mistakes:
- Violate the timing of the planting work. If the culture did not have time to take root before winter, there is a risk of death from frost. With too early spring planting, weakened bushes do not have time to recover before flowering and can suffer from various infections.
- Cutting the ground part too low. It is recommended to leave hemp at least 10 centimeters in size.
- Timely leaf harvesting is neglected. It is advisable that they dry naturally. This provides the root system with the maximum amount of nutrients.
- The bushes are insulated too early for the winter. In warm weather, the plant can dry out.
- Nitrogen fertilizers are used for planting. This provokes the growth of extra leaves.
Daylily is a beautiful decorative culture that is often used in landscape design. In order for the plant to develop normally and bloom magnificently, it is recommended to properly care for it. In this case, it is worthwhile to water the bushes in a timely manner, add nutrients, and prune. In order for the plant to endure the winter normally, it is recommended to warm it. Moreover, the shelter method depends on the climatic characteristics of the region.