Cultivation of grapes is a fairly time-consuming process. Currently, several methods of propagation of grapes are widely used, which differ in the source material. And if breeders most often work with seeds, then winegrowers and gardeners habitually use seedlings or cuttings.
The advantages of planting grapes with cuttings
A very effective method of propagation of grapes is the planting of cuttings. This reproduction has several advantages:
- Cherenkovanie is a very cheap and very reliable way to obtain planting material;
- there is no risk of the plant becoming infected with a vineyard-dangerous disease called phylloxera;
- the method is very economical and simple, which makes it very popular among beginner growers;
- there is no loss, as well as a change in the properties of the variety prepared for cultivation;
- by the autumn period there is an opportunity to get a reliable and well-rooted planting material that can withstand harsh winters.
However, it should be remembered that grafting of grapes allows you to get the first crop after a fairly long time.
The main stages of propagation of grapes by cuttings
Despite the apparent complexity, propagation by cuttings is a fairly easy process, which consists of several successive operations.
Procurement of material in the fall
The success of propagation and the production of a quality plant largely depend on how well the cuttings are prepared. For cuttings, it is necessary to prepare a clean and sharp secateurs. At the procurement stage, it is important to consider the following rules and requirements:
- the best time for this is the autumn period, when after the leaf fall pruning of grape bushes is carried out;
- chopped cuttings should have four well-developed kidneys;
- cuttings obtained from the middle part of the vine are best;
- harvesting is carried out from a fully matured vine, after acquiring brown staining and in the presence of slight cracking during bending;
- high-quality stalk has a diameter of at least 5 mm, does not have damage and is characterized by uniform staining.
It should be borne in mind that it is impossible to use infertile bushes and very thick, so-called fattening, grape shoots whose diameter exceeds 12 mm for cutting planting material.
Marking of cuttings
Before starting to directly root the cuttings, it is necessary to put a mark on each with the name of the variety. The following may be used as a tag or marking material:
- a fabric-based tape on which the inscription is applied with a waterproof marker;
- corrector handle, which directly applies the name of the variety to the stalk;
- a strip of medical oilcloth, which is marked with a marker.
High-quality marking will allow not only to determine the date of preparation of the material, but also orient the wine-grower according to the basic information about the plant, which can be forgotten or lost during storage and rooting.
When to harvest grape cuttings
Storage of cuttings in the winter at home
There are many ways to save cuttings from the vine at home.
In the cellar
The material should be sprinkled with damp sawdust or clean sand. The temperature regime should be maintained at + 6 ° C.
On the bottom shelf of the refrigerator
Having cut off two ordinary plastic bottles and making ventilation holes in them, you can get a convenient container for storing cuttings in the refrigerator.
The sufficiently pronounced antimicrobial properties of sphagnum moss allow it to be used as a storage for planting material. Prepared cuttings should be wrapped with moist moss and placed in a regular polyethylene bag.
In the trench on the plot
The place should not have a tendency to stagnation of moisture and be protected from direct sunlight. Cuttings should be vertically placed in the dug trench and sprinkled with a layer of soil of 35-40 cm. Around the trench, drainage grooves must be provided. Periodically, it is recommended to inspect the cuttings for damage by mold or disease, as well as drying out of the wood.
The rooting of grape cuttings in winter allows accelerating the growth and development of seedlings by about 3 months.
The main grape cuttings
|The name of the method||Execution Features|
|Rooting in water||At the bottom of the glass jars, put a layer of cotton wool 2 cm high and pour a small amount of a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate or water with a piece of charcoal. Cuttings are placed in a liquid, and the greenhouse effect is created from above with the help of a plastic bag or a piece of a plastic bottle. The lower part of the jar should be warm, and cooler conditions should be created for the upper part of the handle. With this method, the roots appear after about two weeks|
|Rooting in the soil||Tanks with a volume of one liter should be equipped with a drainage layer, over which a mixture of the same amount of humus, sifted sand and garden soil is poured. Cuttings should be placed with the lower cut into the container and pour plenty of water. A good result is given by replacing sand with vermiculite or perlite, which allows you to maintain stable soil moisture|
|Peat Rooting||Pre-soaked for a couple of days in the water grape cuttings can be placed in prepared wet peat tablets. The upper part should be paraffinized and wrapped in a damp cloth, cover with a plastic bag to preserve moisture. Roots appear in about three to four weeks.|
|Moldovan Rooting||A cropped vine about 60 cm long should be twisted into a ring, tied with a rope and laid in a fairly deep trench, leaving a couple of buds on the surface. To protect against frost and drying out the kidneys should be mulched. The procedure is performed in the spring, which allows you to get a powerful seedling by the fall|
|Rooting by aeration||This method is based on the use of an aquarium or any container with transparent walls. Prepared cuttings should be placed on a foam bridge, immersing three centimeters of the lower part in water with an aerator pumping air, which improves the formation of the root system. This method is convenient in that the active development of the roots is not accompanied by the formation of leaves.|
Features of planting seedlings in spring
Most often, it is spring planting that is practiced, due to the ability to provide rooted plants with time to adapt to open ground conditions. However, if it is impossible to plant cuttings in the spring, you can perform such work in the autumn, subject to all the necessary rules.
|Landing time||Dates||Soil preparation||Technology|
|Spring||Planting should be carried out in the first decade of April, when stable, but not too high positive temperatures of the soil and air are observed.||A landing pit for planting rooted cuttings should be prepared from the fall. Before planting, the pit should be abundantly moistened using at least 20 liters of water, after which fertilizers and a fertile soil mixture should be poured into it.||Before planting the cuttings, the lower part is trimmed and soaked in warm water with the addition of growth stimulants. Cutting of cuttings is carried out at a distance to the site of more than a centimeter|
|Autumn||Autumn planting is made a month before the onset of persistent cold in the cultivation region||The soil for planting cuttings in the autumn period should be sufficiently moist. Green cuttings involves the use of the so-called school, which is a special plot for growing seedlings. The depth of the trench for landing is a bayonet shovel, the width between the rows is 40-50 cm. A layer of humus and fertile soil mixture should be poured on the bottom||Cuttings are planted at an inclination to the south side with a distance of 20 cm. Three buds are to be deepened, and one bud remains on the surface of the soil. Planting should be poured with warm water and covered first with a layer of straw, and then install an arched structure with a film|
Possible problems and errors
Even experienced growers are not immune to mistakes. However, amateur gardeners who are most likely to encounter difficulties with grafting are grape grapes.
Acquisition of poor-quality planting material
Experienced winegrowers are guided by the unspoken rule that prescribes the purchase of material exclusively in nurseries of fruit and berry crops, in wine growing institutes or from reputable breeders.
Improper storage of grape cuttings
In order to eliminate drying out and prevent the death of cuttings, one should strictly observe the rules for storing planting material and maintain optimal microclimatic conditions.
As a rule, this problem primarily affects cuttings that are planted to root either very early or too late. It is very important to correctly select the term and method of rooting such planting material.
Improper use of stimulants
Many beginning wine growers unjustifiably often use various stimulants, not observing not only the methods of use, but also the dosage of these rather powerful agents.
Most problems are easily solved. However, in order to get a guaranteed high result and grow a healthy plant, the so-called “work on mistakes” should be carried out, which will allow avoiding difficulties with grafting in the future.
How to root grape cuttings
Cuttings refers to vegetative propagation methods in which a new plant is formed from part of the parent. The procedure is simple even for beginner growers. The main condition for obtaining a quality plant is compliance with the technology of all stages of reproduction of grapes, including preparation of the material, its storage, germination and planting.