Pruning of grapes in the summer belongs to the category of obligatory green operations conducted in the vineyard. Neglect of this procedure can turn plants into wild thickets, which will negatively affect the fruitfulness of the plant and the quality characteristics of the berries. Partially compensate for the relatively short summer in some regions of our country, as well as create optimal conditions for the formation of the highest quality crop allows summer pruning of grapes.
Why and when to trim
In conditions of sheltering viticulture, it is preferable to prune grape bushes in the autumn. It is very important to distinguish between the goals of pruning grapes:
- before winter, such a procedure is necessary for the formation of vines;
- in the summer, pruning is aimed at pinching and pinching.
Pruning of grapes in the summer is most often carried out to reduce the waste of plant forces on the formation of fresh branches.
Pruning the vineyard in the summer also allows you to adjust the growth of the bush and balance the volume of fruitful and empty vines. A large number of fruitful arrows is always a guarantee of a plentiful harvest, but the berries in this case can often be small and with low taste indicators, due to a lack of nutrients.
In other words, summer pruning is preventative in nature and helps grapes more easily survive the period of active vegetation. In addition, a well-groomed plant is less affected by diseases and various pests.
A set of measures aimed at increasing the fruitfulness of grapes is as follows:
- pinching, or removing the apical part of the shoot to accelerate the development of the remaining portion of the branch;
- chasing, or removing a significant shoot length after the cessation of its active growth in order to redirect nutrients to internodes and grape brushes;
- pinching, or removing second-order shoots to improve nutrition of fruiting shoots;
- thinning, or removal of dried leaves and extra shoots, which allows to increase the area of ventilation of the plant and lighting of bunches.
Very often, the need for summer pruning arises if the vineyard has been damaged by a natural phenomenon such as hail.
The timing of the summer pruning of grapes depends on climatic conditions in the cultivation region, as well as prevailing weather conditions and plant conditions. The exact dates of green work are determined in each case individually.
How to prune grapes in summer
How to cut unwanted shoots in August
All cropping activities must be carried out in the morning or evening hours. It is advisable to trim on cloudy days. The scheme for pruning a grape bush in the summer is quite simple and includes the following actions:
- in the first decade of June, young shoots are removed, and a garter of the fruiting vine and the formation of replacement knots with pruning for 2-3 buds are also carried out;
- in the last decade of June or the beginning of July, the grape bush is stepsoned, followed by fertilizing the plant;
- in the first days of August, 20% of young grape shoots are chased when they reach a length of 1 m or more;
- in mid-August, foliage is thinned, shading the grapes, as well as old leaves are removed and the lower part of the vine is clarified.
When grapes are cultivated in areas of risky farming, pruning is carried out in early June, after the emergence of young shoots. Their length should be about five centimeters. In addition, in the last days of June and August, it is very important to prune the surface roots on the underground part of the trunk of the grape bush. After the first pruning, dusting is carried out until the shoot grows green, and after the second procedure, a hole with a depth of about 10 cm should be left.
If the grape bushes are damaged by hail before flowering, pruning of the primary shoots is carried out directly at the base, which contributes to the formation of a secondary growth from underdeveloped ocelli at the initial stage of vegetation. In case of damage received by grape bushes after the formation of bunches, pruning of all damaged parts should be carried out, followed by two-fold treatment with fungicides.
Grape Care after Pruning
In summer, pruning can be considered quite arbitrary, and such an event is not a significant burden for a vegetative plant. Therefore, grape care after pruning should be standard:
- watering is carried out at the rate of 10 liters of water for each grape bush;
- as the main fertilizer, it is recommended to use ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, ammonium sulfate;
- the soil around the bushes must be loosened after irrigation or liquid top dressing;
- mulching the soil reduces the need for frequent weeding and improves soil moisture;
- should not be neglected by tying the grapes as the green shoots on the trellises grow.
Any pruning can provoke weakening of the plant and damage to its fungal infections. In order to protect against diseases, it is necessary to carry out treatment with fungicidal preparations. At the first signs of damage to the plant with gray rot, it is necessary to spray with a solution of manganese, and treat the bunches with a solution of ordinary baking soda.
- After reading the corresponding article on our resource, you can also find out when to open grapes after winter.
Tips & Tricks
It is necessary to observe the cutting technology, which involves performing the procedure only with a clean and extremely sharp tool. Slices should be smooth and, if possible, located on the inside of the shoot. Such sections heal faster and are less traumatic for the grape bush.
Summer chasing of grape shoots
It should be remembered that the presence of slices from different sides contributes to the difficulty of movement of juice with nutrients, which provokes a significant decrease in yield. To protect against premature depletion of the plant on very mature bushes, it is recommended to carry out normal crop pruning.