Before starting the cultivation of tomatoes on a personal plot, the grower should determine not only the variety, but also the variety of tomato, on which the cultivation of the plant and its properties depend.
General concept and features
Varieties and hybrids of tomatoes by the nature of growth are divided into indeterminate and determinant. To make the right choice in favor of one or another type, you need to have at least a general idea of the differences, advantages and disadvantages of these varieties.
The word "determinant" comes from the Latin "determination", which means "restriction". Regarding tomatoes, this term implies limiting the growth of the apical center during the formation of a peduncle in this area. Fruits on the brush are formed at the end of the shoots, which stops their development. Such low-growing varieties belong to early ripening, but are characterized by low productivity. When cultivating tomatoes in the open field, as well as in the northern regions, one should give preference to determinants.
The term "indeterminate" is translated from Latin as "unlimited". Indeterminate varieties of tomatoes have unlimited growth, but are always very demanding in the care. Tall varieties are not characterized by early maturity, but their productivity is quite high. When cultivating tomatoes in the southern regions or in greenhouse conditions, it is recommended to pay attention to such varieties. Indeterminate tomatoes are characterized by the fact that inflorescences are formed on the site after the 6-10th leaf.
Determinant Tomatoes: Growing and Care
Types of Determinant Tomatoes
This type of tomato combines four varieties that are quite popular with most vegetable growers. They have some differences that should be considered when growing.
Quite often, this variety is perceived by gardeners as an indeterminate variety. However, semi-determinant varieties are characterized by an intermediate type of branching, in which bush growth is limited when 10-12 peduncles are formed. Such brushes with ovaries are laid in 2 or 3 of these sheets. The first brush is formed after the 7-8th sheet.
On the bushes of such tomatoes, the formation of flower brushes is observed in less than 3 leaves, and after the appearance of 5-6 brushes on the shoot, the last flower brush stops growing the stem. In this case the first peduncle is formed after the 6-7th tomato leaf. Growth continues from the axillary bud, which is located at the bottom of the leaf.
Superdeterminant varieties of tomatoes are among the most precocious. On such bushes, flower brushes are laid in 1, less often in 2 sheets. After 4 or 5 peduncles are formed on the plant, an shoot appears. Plant growth is limited by a flower brush.
This type combines super-dwarf and super-ripe varieties of tomatoes. Such tomato bushes form at the same time 2 or 3 flower brushes that are not separated by intermediate leaves. The growth of the shoot is limited after the formation of three or four peduncles. The bookmark of the first brush is observed after the fifth real sheet. The next peduncle may form through the leaf.
The main differences
Differences between determinant and indeterminate varieties are manifested at different stages of development of tomato bushes.
The difference between the seed of the species is not noticeable. The first differences appear at the seedling stage and are especially clearly visible on the fifth day after emergence. Determinant varieties have a cotyledonary knee no more than three centimeters long. The cotyledonary knee of indeterminate varieties can reach a length of five centimeters.
The basis of the definition is the location of the first flower brush, or peduncle, on an already grown seedling. On determinant tomato bushes, a flower stalk is formed no higher than the 6-7th leaf. For indeterminate varieties, the appearance of the first peduncle is characteristic not earlier than the 8-9th leaf.
As a rule, by this moment it is already becoming apparent what specific plant species is cultivated in the infield. On indeterminate tomatoes, there are three leaves between peduncles, and on determinant varieties, less than three leaves.
After reading the corresponding article on our resource, you can learn about the technology of growing tomatoes on the windowsill.
The best determinant and indeterminate varieties
Determinant tomatoes are ideally suited both for cultivation in the open ground, and for growing in greenhouses, and the choice of variety depends on climatic conditions in the cultivation region.
|Grade name||Description and characteristic||Productivity||Features|
|"Dina"||Mid early yellow carotene variety. Suitable for open ground and film shelters. Bush height up to 1.25 m||Fruit weight 100-300 g. Yield from the bush up to 4-4.5 kg||Resistant to disease and tolerates drought.|
|Bull forehead||Variety for open ground, forms fleshy and very tasty, universal use fruits||Fruit weight 150-500 g. Productivity up to 18 kg per square meter||Resistant to certain diseases.|
|"Persimmon"||Medium-sized, up to 1.5 m in height, yellow-fruited tomato for growing in open ground and a greenhouse. Universal use||Fruit weight is about 350 g. Productivity is about 6 kg per square meter||Prolonged fruiting, before frost|
|"Nastena"||Early ripe hybrid up to 1.5 m high. Fruits are round, aligned, red, long-term storage||Fruit weight is about 300 g. Productivity is about 16.5 kg per square meter.||Resistant to the defeat of TMV, alternariosis and late blight|
|"French bunch"||Mid-season, up to a meter high, with finger fruits. Universal use||Fruit weight is about 100 g. Productivity is about 19 kg from a bush||Has average disease resistance|
Indeterminate tomatoes are tall plants that form a large number of fruits, which makes them very popular among vegetable growers. The selection of such varieties is optimal for cultivation in greenhouse constructions.
|Grade name||Description and characteristic||Productivity||Features|
|The King of the Orange||Mid-ripening variety forming a crop in 125-130 days||The weight of the fetus is up to 0.8 kg. Productivity is about 6 kg from a bush||Resistant to disease, including late blight|
|"Dobrun"||Early ripe red-fruited hybrid with simple inflorescences||Fruit weight 140-160 g. Productivity up to 7 kg per square meter||Resistant to common tomato diseases|
|"Cosmonaut Volkov"||The height of the bush is about 2 m, medium early, forming a crop in 120-125 days||The weight of the fetus is up to 0.6 kg. Productivity up to 6 kg per bush||Resistant to the most common diseases and very unpretentious in care|
|"Leningrad Autumn"||Mid-late red-fruited variety for greenhouses, forming a crop in 120-130 days||Fruit weight up to 120 g. Productivity up to 6.5 kg per bush||Resistant to brown spotting, frost resistant|
|"St. Andrew's surprise"||Bush height about 2 m, medium late, raspberry fruits||The weight of the fetus is about 0.8 kg. Productivity of about 16.5 kg or more per square meter||Resistant to major tomato diseases|
Of course, the choice of the type and variety of tomatoes depends not only on the personal preferences of the vegetable grower and should be based on the conditions of cultivation. The climatic and weather conditions in the cultivation area should be taken into account. Subject to agricultural technology, even undersized varieties are able to produce a high tomato crop.