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Grapes (Vitis) - a culture loved by many gardeners because of the delicious berries and shady leaves. But so that the plant annually pleased with a good harvest, it should be properly trimmed. Illiterate pruning of the vine will provoke improper growth, rapid withering and a decrease in frost resistance of the plant.
When to prune grapes: in spring or autumn
Grape pruning is done in early spring or late fall. The choice of season depends on the plant variety and climatic characteristics of the region. If the winter in your area is harsh, autumn pruning is not recommended.
In spring, pruning is carried out when the air temperature becomes equal to 3 degrees. In autumn, the process is carried out 3 weeks later, after the plant throws off the leaves.
Grape pruning in spring
Spring pruning is practiced in the northern regions. Only in the spring can you see which sprouts died and which did not. Young plants are also pruned only in spring.
Pruning in the spring is carried out after the temperature in the street exceeds 3 degrees, but there will not be sap flow in the vine. If the work is done later, the damage to the plant will be slower to heal, and the grapes themselves will be oppressed.
The minus of pruning in the spring is that the grapes give a large amount of juice, so damage can heal slowly. Moreover, with a vertical garter, the juice can flow down to the kidneys, which reduces the yield of the plant and provokes rotting of the trunk.
How to prune grapes in spring
Ways of spring pruning grapes
There are two ways to form a vine:
Consider the detailed instructions for each cropping method.
How is stampless forming made?
Stampless pruning is used when covering crops in a cover-up method. The process is carried out in the first spring, and autumn work is skipped for the first 3 years.
The cropping scheme is as follows:
- In the first year, pruning directly depends on how many eyes have formed. If 2, pruning by 2 eyes is carried out, if 1 - by 4. The upper shoots are eliminated.
- In the 2nd year, the sleeves are cut off for 2 eyes, new shoots must be left.
- In the 3rd year, 2 vines located near the root are left on the sleeves. The upper branch is shortened by 7 buds, the lower - by 2. Other branches are cut.
As a result of these steps, you will get a good sleeve with a fruit vine at the end.
How is the standard formation carried out?
The stamping is suitable for growing crops without shelter for the winter. The formation scheme in this case looks like this:
- In the first year, all shoots are cut into 2 eyes.
- In the 2nd year I leave 2 developed shoots, while one of them is shortened by 3 eyes, and in the 2nd leave a couple of buds. The remaining branches must be broken down, and the trunk tied to a support.
- In the 3rd year, the vine is cut so that its length is equal to the length of the stem. Then shoots are removed except for the top 2, which are shortened by 2 buds. Sleeves are formed from them, requiring attachment to the stake using wire.
- In the 4th year, the upper arms are cut so that the distance between them is 20 cm. The remaining shoots should be eliminated.
- In the 5th year, only a couple of eyes are left, and the shoots that have grown over the summer break off.
- On the 6th year, fruit links are formed. For this purpose, the lower vine is cut into 2 eyes, and the upper - by 8.
Subsequently, grape pruning is performed in the same way as in spring to maintain shape.
You may also be interested in an article in which we talk about the features of summer pruning of grapes.
Pruning after frost damage
The result of exposure to frost can be damage to the kidneys, bast, shoots and wood of the vine. This means that pruning in this case should be carried out short in order to provoke the growth of new shoots and restore the plant.
If only some parts of the plant are damaged, complete pruning is not performed. In case of significant damage, it is necessary to replace the sleeves, while maintaining the previous formation. First, transverse and longitudinal sections of a number of parts of the vines and sleeves are performed, and then the load is determined.
If the entire part of the bush located above the ground has died, a cut should be made on the black head. For this, the bush is dug up to a depth of 30 cm, and a saw is cut with a hacksaw over a healthy knot of the stem. Next, the cut is cleaned with a knife and sprinkled with soil at 5 cm. From the shoots of the shoots, 4 pieces are chosen, conveniently located. The rest are eliminated, and pinch shoots after they grow to 70-centimeter length. In the fall, standard formation is carried out.
Grapes: bush formation
Spring pruning of the vine is an important part of grape care. Its combination with top dressing, watering and pest protection will provide you with a good harvest of berries.